CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
Digestion of nutrients for energy
- Carbohydrates are broken down by saliva from the salivary glands, amylase from the pancreas. Maltase from the intestine converts maltose into glucose. Lactase from the intestine converts lactose into glucose and galactose. Sucrase from the intestine converts sucrose into glucose and fructose. These sugars are absorbed in the small intestine.
- Protein breaks down with hydrochloric acid and pepsin secreted by the stomach, proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) from the pancreas. Protein is absorbed in the intestine as amino acids.
- Fat breaks down with bile acid from the liver, lipase from the pancreas, and absorbed by the lacteals in the small intestine.
Digestive system care
- Eat slow and chew food well.
- Drink at least 64 ounces of water daily (8-8 ounces or 5 1/2-12 ounces).
- Eat healthy, low fat, high fiber.
- Wash your hands.
- Use safe food preparation and storing techniques (cool, clean, cook, & separate).
- Visit a health professional regularly or as a need may arise.
Digestion health related issues
- Heartburn is a burning discomfort in the upper abdomen, chest, or below the breast bone. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens when belching or to let food move from the esophagus to the stomach and closes to keep stomach acid in the stomach. However, if it opens too often or does not close tightly, stomach acid can reflux, or seep, into the esophagus and cause a burning sensation. Heartburn can be caused by too much food in the stomach (overeating), too much pressure on the stomach (being over weight, pregnant, or constipated) or foods that relax the lower esophageal sphincter (tomatoes, citrus fruits, garlic, onions, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, caffeinated products, and peppermint). Foods with a high percentage of fats and oils and some medications can increase discomfort. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn. Smoking, both relaxes the sphincter and stimulates stomach acid. Reduce stress, control diet by not eating foods that contribute to increased acid or relaxes the LES. Medication or in serious cases surgery.
- Constipation is when the solid waste (feces) becomes hard and dry making bowel movements difficult. Exercise, drink sufficient water to soften, and eat sufficient fiber to move waste through the digestive system. Consult with medical experts to review the use of medication (antidepressants), vitamin supplements (large doses of calcium, iron), or diet (too much dairy ... not enough fiber) that may be the cause constipation.
- Indigestion is the feeling of discomfort in the upper abdomen sometimes with nausea and gas. Can be caused by eating too much, too fast, too much fat, spicy foods, or stomach disorders or stress. Change eating habits and if problem continues, consult a medical professional.
- Stomach ache and nausea can be caused by gas, motion sickness, bacteria, virus, medication, and dehydration.
- Diarrhea is frequent watery feces. Can be caused by medication, stress, bacteria, virus, lactose intolerance, parasite, or nutritional deficiencies. Dehydration can occur along with it. Drink plenty of fluids and if there is a high fever, sever pain, black or bloody stool, or it persists consult a medical professional.
- Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix caused by blockage or bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Symptoms may include dull or sharp pain anywhere in the upper or lower abdomen, back, or rectum, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Consult a medical professional. Lack of timely treatment can result in death if the infection spreads.
Excretory system data sheet Review
Excretory system eliminates undigested food and waste (solid, liquid, & gas) from the body so it can live. The intestinal tract (small intestine and colon) removes solid wastes (see digestion), skin removes liquid and heat (see skin), lungs rid the body of heat and gases (see respiratory), urinary system remove liquids and solids (see below) and endocrine removes solid and liquids (see endocrine).
The liver filters and processes blood as it circulates the body. It receives blood from the small intestine. The liver removes toxins like ammonia, drugs, alcohol, and cellular products like bilirubin that results from breaking down worn out red blood cells. It metabolizes nutrients, detoxifies harmful substances, makes blood clotting proteins, and other vital functions. Cells in the liver have enzymes (proteins that catalyze a biochemical reaction) that regulate its chemical reactions.
The urinary system filters wastes and extra liquids and eliminates them from the body. Many of the waste molecules include dissolved nitrogen. The system includes kidneys, bladder, ureter, and urethra.
Adapted from Illu_urinary_system.jpg: Arcadian derivative work: Thstehle Derivative work by Commons sibi [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Kidneys are bean shaped organs in the middle of the back below the rib cage, one on each side of the body. Each is about 4-5 inches from bottom to top; a bit bigger than a fist. Each contains more than a million small spherical shaped containers (nephrons) that the liquid part of the blood and materials smaller than proteins and red blood cells enter. Liquids and materials that enter the chamber (blood lite) flow into other capsules and tubules. Some of the materials (amino acids, salt, water ... ) pass through the walls and are rerouted back into the blood (reabsorbed). Depending on the concentration from one side of the wall to the other the flow of materials can balance the amounts of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, phosphate, and pH in the blood and ultimately the body. Wastes that do not pass through the walls (filtered) continue through the tubes and flow into a collecting duct that leads to the ureter where the waste is excreted as urine. Detailed function of the kidney video (3:10).
Ureters are two tubes that connect from the kidneys to the bladder. Each is 8-12 inches long and about 2-4 mm in diameter. The walls are smooth muscle tissue that move urine from the kidney to the bladder by peristalsis (contract and relax muscles). Infection can develop if urine movement is too little. The ureters move small amounts of urine into the bladder every 10 to 15 seconds.
Bladder is a hollow muscular balloon shaped organ held in place with ligaments attached to the pelvic bone and other organs. It stores urine by expanding until you are ready to go to the bathroom to empty it and then it contracts. An average bladder holds 16 ounces (two cups) of urine comfortably for two to five hours.
Urethra is the tube that connects from the bladder to the outside of the body.
Sphincters are circular muscles at the bottom of the bladder that keep urine in the bladder. Nerves in the bladder signal the brain when it is time to urinate (empty the bladder). The sensation is stronger as the bladder fills. When the brain decides the bladder is full and a person urinates the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten and the sphincter muscles to relax causing urine to exit the bladder through the urethra.
Excretory system care
- Drink at least 64 ounces of water daily (8-8 ounces or 5 1/2-12 ounces).
- Limit use of caffeine, soft drinks, and alcohol
- Eat a balance diet. See also digestion and nutrition
- Practice good hygiene to reduce chance of infections
- Get regular medical check ups.
- Consult a medical professional of any changes in bowel or bladder habits: frequency, color, odor, pain ...
Excretory health related issues
- Jaundice (French, jaune means yellow) is caused by too much bilirubin (a substance that results from breaking down red blood cells) tints the skin and nails yellow. Jaundice in newborns needs to be monitored so if the bilirubin level gets too high (hyperbilirubinemia) it can be treated and lowered. If not it can cause brain damage (kernicterus) and other serious problems.
- Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Tissue can be temporally inflamed or permanently damaged. It can be caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses, metabolic problems, autoimmune, genetic, drugs, and other toxins.
- Cirrhosis is serious scarring of the liver caused by too much alcohol over a number of years. It can cause liver failure and death.
- Urinary problems usually cause inflammation of the bladder or urethra that is most often caused by bacterial infection. Symptoms can include pain, frequent urination, fever, blood in the urine. If not treated it can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure and death. Treatment requires medical advise and usually antibiotics.
- Nephritis is the inflammation of the nephrons . Can be caused by a bacterial infection, allergic reaction to medication, low potassium, long use of medication, and autoimmune disease. Symptoms include pain in the pelvic or kidney area, burning sensation when urinating, frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine, blood or pus in the urine, swelling of face, legs, and feet, vomiting, fever, and high blood pressure. Treatment requires doctor examination, antibiotics, medication, supplements, corticosteroids, dialysis, transplant.
- Kidney stones (salt crystals that harden into stone and block the passage of urine. Treatment with sound waves or surgery.
- Kidney failure is when the kidneys can not function and filter the blood which will result in death. Treatment can be dialysis. Dialysis uses a machine that filters the blood several hours two or four times a week depending on the person the size of the person and the seriousness of the problem. Kidney transplant.
Endocrine system data sheet Review
Endocrine system includes chemicals (hormones) secreted by endocrine glands: adrenal, pineal, ovary, testis directly into the blood stream. They signal and regulate physical and mental body functions for emotions, growth, reproduction, use of nutrients, minerals, energy, balance of fluids, and other body changes for efficiency. See also Exercise, hormones, and stress.
Adapted from By Governmenst [Public do teh main], via Wikimedia Commons
Glands and organs that affect the endocrine system
- Thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body temperature, and bone growth. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
- Parathyroid glands produce hormones that balance calcium and phosphorus in the body.
- Ovaries produce hormones that regulate growth and produce egg cells for reproduction.
- Estrogen is produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands. It determines if cells use carbohydrates or fats for energy during intense exercise sessions. Women tend to burn fat for fuel because they have higher levels or estrogen, while men tend to burn carbohydrates.
- Testosterone contributes to muscle repair, building cells, and growth in both men and women. It is produced in the ovaries, testes, and adrenal gland. Intense exercise increases testosterone production.
- Testes produce hormones that regulate growth and produce sperm for reproduction.
- Testosterone contributes to muscle repair, building cells, and growth in both men and women. It is produced in the ovaries, testes, and adrenal gland. Requires intense exercise to increase production.
- Hypothalamus connects the endocrine system and nervous system and stimulates the pituitary gland to release certain hormones.
- Pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin that regulates the sleep cycle and onset of puberty.
- Pituitary gland regulates and controls all endocrine glands.
- Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) also called arginine vasopressin (AVP). It is made in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary. It signals the kidneys to regulate the amount of water in the blood stream. It also helps maintain blood pressure, constrict blood vessels (increasing ADH constricts blood vessels), regulate blood volume, and the concentration of urine excreted by the kidney.
- Endorphins are created in the pituitary gland. They make you feel exhilarated, happy, and block pain.
- Oxytocin - released by the pituitary gland in stressful situations. Urges you to seek others for support and help, anti inflammation, helps regenerate and strengthen heart cells. In women during birth it stimulates the contraction of the uterus and production of breast milk. It cements a bond between mother and child. Seems to increase social information processed in the brain.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH.) is produced in and released from the pituitary gland. It stimulates the production and secretion of cortisol (helps body manage stress) from the adrenal cortex. Its release is a responses to the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), by the hypothalamus. Cortisol is necessary for life, so its levels in the blood must be closely controlled. When cortisol levels rise, ACTH levels normally fall. When cortisol levels fall, ACTH levels normally rise. Therefore, testing to measure the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood is used to monitor the health of the pituitary and adrenal glands.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone) is made in the pituitary and stimulates the thyroid gland. See thyroid gland.
- Growth hormone is a complex chain of amino acids secreted by your anterior pituitary gland. It is needed for muscle growth, collagen repair, joint health, immune system function, and healthy skin. Requires intense exercise and short rest intervals. Other Growth factors are similar to hormones and are also produced in the pituitary and most cells. Growth factors hepatocyte, fibroblast, and insulin like growth factor (IGF 1) sends signals to satellite cells to regulate the repair, rebuilding, and growth of muscle mass. IGF-1, for example, signals new muscle cells to fuse to existing muscle fibers to repair muscle cells damaged by exercise. Intense exercise and weight training can increase human growth factor by as much as 200%. Just be careful and have a spotter.
- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and skin cells. Melanocytes are cells in the basal (base) layer of the epidermis that produces melanin when signaled by MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone).
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone and regulates development, growth, pubertal maturation, and stimulate the testes in males and ovaries in females which is necessary for reproductive. FSH stimulates the production of estrogen which stimulates egg cell production. LH causes ovulation and stimulates the ovarian cells to produce progesterone. LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. FSH controls the production of sperm.
- Prolactin stimulates production of milk in females after they give birth.
- Thymus gland regulates the immune system.
- Adrenal glands produce hormones that regulate stress, salt and water balance. Secretions are from the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla for emergency responses and other important functions.
- Adrenaline and noradrenaline also called epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced in the medulla. They regulate constriction of blood vessels (tension of blood vessels), heart rate, breathing, and metabolism (use of energy or use of glycogen and fat and muscle in the absence of sufficient sugar and fat). Sugar and fat are stored mostly in the liver and skeletal muscles, but also in smaller amounts in all other tissues and organs. The production or epinephrine and norepinephrine increases proportional to increased exercise intensity and duration.
- Norepinephrine is released into the blood stream from the medulla in the adrenal glands and in parts of the brain. It improves cognitive function dulled by stress by elevating mood and learning, whose production is increased with exercise. Exercise can make you smarter.
- Aldosterone is made in the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It regulates sodium excretion important to maintain electrolyte balance.
- Cortisol is know as the chronic (long term) stress hormone, though there are others. The release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland promotes the production and secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. It maintains blood glucose for long periods of exercise by signaling the body to start breaking down proteins and triglycerides. Excessive physical activity and exercise without providing sufficient time to rest will increase cortisol, which is associated with inflammation, lowered immunity, reduced short-term memory, constipation, weight gain especially in the abdominal region, loss of muscle tone, osteoporosis, and reduced production of hormones: growth hormone, testosterone, DHEA and estrogen.
- Estrogen is produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands. It determines if carbohydrates or fat are used to fuel the body during an intense exercise session. Women tend to burn fat for fuel because they have higher levels or estrogen, while men tend to burn carbs.
- Pancreas provides functions for both digestive system and endocrine system. Hormones glucagon and insulin to regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels.
- Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas and regulates blood sugar levels. More insulin decreases blood sugar faster. After a hard work out blood sugar is low and insulin levels high. To reduce insulin levels after a workout take simple sugars or simple proteins, such as dextrose and whey.
- Glucagon is a hormone that stimulates the liver to release glucose. Glucagon is released when blood glucose levels are low and more glucose is needed, such as with exercise and stressful situations. If too low it can cause the release of glycogen, a concentrated stored form of glucose stored in the liver and muscles. Insulin brakes it down into glucose for energy when blood glucose levels are low. Glycogen has an important role to fuel muscles during exercise. When we exercise, muscles will use their stored glycogen. When we rest the muscles replenish their glycogen stores in a few hours or in several days depending on the intensity of the work-out. When glycogen is used up, gluconeogenesis (the conversion of glucose from non carbohydrate substances, amino acids and fatty acids, in the liver and kidneys) begins. Turning stored fat (triglycerides and fatty acids) and muscle protein (amino acids) into glucose to use as fuel. This fat and protein metabolism is less efficient, so performance declines and fatigue occurs.
Other body areas that produce hormones or hormone like chemicals
- Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive nerve inputs as nerves and release hormones like endocrine cells into the blood stream.
- Thyroxine, or T4, increases metabolism and hence caloric use during exercise. This will allow the body to burn excess sugar and fat faster. However, if you lack sufficient sugar or fat to burn, your body will begin to use muscle for energy and result in the lose muscle mass.
- Vasopressin is released by the brain and regulates the amount of water in the blood stream. Related to sweat when you exercise, staying hydrated, and urine production.
Endocrine system care
- Eat balanced meals and drink sufficient water
- Manage stress
- Get sufficient sleep (eight and one-half - nine hours a night)
- Avoid infections through proper care or medical treatment.
- Keep a balance of minerals or vitamins in your diet.
- Have regular medical check-ups
Endocrine health related issues
- Diabetes is caused by an imbalance of sugar in the body. There are two types: Type 1. and Type 2.
- Type 1: is when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin for the body to function well. The body requires insulin to use sugar (glucose) in or made from the food we eat. While insulin will reduce the amount of sugar in the bloodstream, injecting insulin is not a cure for diabetes. The body balances sugar levels in several ways. Through the types of food we eat, the amount of exercise we do, and the way our body produces and uses hormones that balance and control the use of glucose. A healthy pancreas makes and releases insulin and glucagon (hormones) to metabolize (use) glucose (sugar) for energy. Therefore, balanced insulin production controls blood sugar levels, so they do not get too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). Glucagon can also cause the liver to release glycogen, a concentrated form of glucose, which also effects glucose levels (see pancreas). Glucagon is injected to treat hypoglycemia (low sugar levels). Therefore, a healthy combination of these hormones must be found to balance sugar levels. To complicate finding a healthy combination is the variation of food intake and exercise that must be considered to determine not only the amount of insulin and glucagon needed, but the rate and time for them to be introduced. For example the fastest acting insulin on the market takes over an hour to reach peak effectiveness, while food will raise glucose levels within minutes. These combinations make it difficult to create an artificial pancreas or smart pump. Source
- Type 2 diabetes is when the pancreas produces insulin, but not enough for the body to function well based on the food and lifestyle choices made. The amount of insulin needed to process the amount of food eaten is out of balance. People may not know they have type 2 diabetes without a checkup or until the disease becomes severe.
- See also American Diabetes Association
- Thyroid problems related to too much or not enough production of the hormones it makes.
- Adrenal functions that make too much of its hormones.
Lymphatic system and Immune system data sheet Review
Lymphatic system is associated with the immune system and leukocyte cells that defend against disease causing agents. It does this with lymph fluid, lymph ducts, lymph nodes and the cardiovascular system and immune systems.
Lymph fluid is in the spaces around the cells where it is deposited by the circulatory system. It contains water, protein, fat, and leukocytes. It is filtered by lymph nodes, which are small bean-shaped organs in the lymph ducts.
Lymph ducts (vessels) collect lymph fluid and return it to the heart. They are made of muscle that expand and contract to move the fluid toward the heart. When it returns to the heart, it is remixed with the blood and recirculated to the body.
Immune system includes networks of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against disease causing agents, pathogens (bacteria, virus, parasites), and foreign substances that enter the body (toxins) and some cancer cells that develop within the body.
Allergic reactions are caused when foreign bodies (allergens) touch the skin or enter the body and cause an autoimmune response, that might not happen for most people. Symptoms, such as redness, rash, sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and a runny nose that result with the release of histamines in response to allergens.
The immune system must respond quickly and efficiently as many pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt to avoid detection and defensive actions of the immune system. To achieve this different cells respond in one of two ways. Immediate nonadaptive and mediated adaptive.
Adapted from Bruce Blaus "Blausen gallery 2014". [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Leukocyte cells (some previously known as white blood cells) include lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages. They are created by myeloid stem cells and provide innate immunity protection (protection that is quick and doesn't adapt). Myeloid stem cells also create erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and megakaryocytes (platelets).
Leukocyte cells in the lymph nodes trap and destroy pathogens (a microorganism that causes a disease). Leukocyte cells in the circulatory system are also crucial to our immune systems.
Lymphocytes are one kind of Leukocyte. They are created by lymphoid progenitor stem cells and provide a mediated adaptive immunity protection (protection that is slower because it takes time to adapt). They include B lymphocyte cells, T lymphocyte cells and killer cells.
T lymphocyte cells (thymus gland), B lymphocyte cells (bone marrow), and natural killer cells. Lymphocytes are part of our immune defense. Their purpose is to recognize antigens, produce antibodies, and destroy cells that could damage the body. See lymphocytes video (4:56)
The lymphatic system also includes: tonsils (reduce pathogens entering the body through the respiratory system), adenoids, thymus gland, spleen, and appendix.
Lymphatic system care
- Eat a balanced diet
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Avoid illegal drug use
- Get regular medical check ups
Lymphatic health related issues
- Tonsillitis is when pathogens cause an infected. Treatment with antibiotics or removal with surgery.
- Immune deficiency is when the immune system is weakened to protect the body from infection. Causes can be congenital, poor nutrition of the baby's mother, hereditary, white cell production problem, HIV, chemotherapy, drug use, toxin ingestion, and aging.
- Hodgkin's disease or lymphoma is cancer in the lymph tissue in the lymph nodes, and spleen. Treatment can be removal of tissue, radiation, and chemotherapy.
Reproduction system Review
Reproductive system includes the sex organs required for procreation of offspring. It takes nine months for a human embryo to develop. Embryos are nourished by their mother. The substances a mother takes affects how well or poorly the baby develops. People are able to have children before they can care for them.
Reproductive system care
- Regular checkups and prenatal care.
- Eat a balanced diet
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Avoid the use of any substance that might lead to health problems
- Avoid illegal drug use
Continue your study with ...
Advanced study resources
Body System Activity Rubric with outcomes & scoring guide
Advocacy related outcomes ( 5 points) Total ______ / 100
- Presented and advocated positive health choices
- Presented and promoted information that was health-enhancing
- Interacted with awareness of the audience
- Encouraged others to make healthy choices
- demonstrated passion or conviction for the information presented
Goal Setting related outcomes ( 5 points)
- Focused on the presentation as the goal
- Created a work path that was realistic and attainable
- Selected an effective strategy and plan to implement and achieve the goal
- Monitored, evaluated, and reflected on the plan and its implementation and made adjustments as necessary
Communication related outcomes ( 50 points)
Presentation completed __ Data sheet completed __ Review completed __
- Clear - presentation of ideas that were easy to understand
- Precise - information was appropriate for the presentation
- Reliable - consistent good quality information that can be trusted
- Logical - ideas fit together without discrepancies and supported the conclusions
- Relevant - idea or ideas that fit the purpose of the presentation
- Consistent - idea or ideas are supported by observation, current research, or wisdom of practice. novel ideas are developed with plausible explanations.
- Comprehensive - contains necessary and sufficient information and supporting information to communicate the idea or group of ideas and all their complexity and connectedness through multiple perspectives
- Complexity includes explanations and examples of the functions of the system. ___
- Unbiased - fair nonprejudicial presentation of information and all messages given
- Interactions with group members assisted achievement of the appropriate goals.
- Used appropriate listening skills
- Distinguished between supported factual information and beliefs or emotional feelings by stating "I think" or "I feel" or using I statements
- Used a respectful tone
- Used appropriate body language
- Supported their messages with research, logical reasoning, and meaningful explanations
Decision Making related outcomes (10 points)
Decisions for planning and presenting their presentation
- Focused on the presentation.
- Clearly understood the situation.
- Gathered relevant reliable information.
- Recognized the influence of values on possible decisions.
- Analyzed gathered information.
- Identified alternative ideas or actions based on the collected information.
- Generated possible options.
- Generated consequences for different options.
- Evaluated and decided on a successful process.
- Implemented their decisions.
- Evaluated their implementation.
- Avoided confusion or intimidation and assists others to understand and move the decision making process toward a healthy conclusion that benefited the welfare of others and the Earth.
Analyzing Influences related outcomes ( 5 points)
- Identified and analyzed external and internal conditions and how they vary.
- Identified biases and influences that affected decision making.
- Interpreted how conditions and influences impact relationships and used this information to better make decisions, set goals, communicate, advocate for health, and achieve goals.
Accessing Information related outcomes ( 5 points)
Took steps to get valid health information and appropriate health services.
- Cited sources.
- Evaluated the validity of sources.
- Mentioned appropriate health resources
for the system.
- Included specific types of help available for different needs.
Refusal Skills related outcomes ( 5 points)
- Included the word "no" in any refusal response.
- Provided an explanation of why in any refusal response.
- Offered appropriate alternatives in place of the proposed activity that is being rejected.
- Used body language that supported the communication of refusal.
- Included a description of "moving on" from the situation.
Self-Management Skills related outcomes ( 5 points)
- Included healthy behaviors and habits for a person to achieve healthy behaviors.
- Identified protective behaviors (diet, exercise, first aid, seat belt usage, cell phone use, texting and driving, alcohol, risk management) to achieve a health in the system.
- Described procedures for protective behaviors for their system (eat healthy, exercise, safe environments, ...)
- Described a problem if they occurred
- Considered how each person felt. Used "I think" or "I feel" or I statements
- Explained reasons for each different position
- Considered other perspectives
- Invented options for the group's benefit
- Agreed on a solution that benefited the group
Stress Management related outcomes ( 5 points)
- Identified situations that caused stress
- Demonstrated techniques to manage
and reduce stress (talking about it,
relaxation strategies, getting to work, not procrastinating ...)
This rubric was created based on the Healthy Practices Skills and Outcomes for a middle level health course, which were heavily influenced by the national health standards.
Accurate and quality information is needed to make good healthy decisions.
A healthy person understanding what is human, their body, it's anatomy, functions of life, growth, and development well enough to care for them self and others to attain and maintain physically, emotionally, and socially healthy bodies. To achieve this one must be able to describe, analyze, predict, and compare how different variables affect the body to make wise decisions. Desire to learn about nutrition, diet, exercise, sleep, stress, relaxation, choice of behaviors, social skills, conflict resolution, cooperation, genetics, safety, injuries, health status, illness, natural disasters, environmental health, and risks, will impact them and others in different situations or conditions.