Target Proficiencies in Science and Engineering for K-12 Students
(from The National Research Council - draft summer 2010)

Science Engineering
Strand 1 - Know, use and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world Strand 1 - Know use and interpret scientific explanations in the designed world
• Encountering and recognizing a puzzling
• Formulating a scientific question
• Encountering an unmet need or problem
• Defining a technological problem
• Learning about related established
• Learning about related established scientific knowledge, and how it was developed • Researching how others have approached similar questions/ problems, or learning more about the nature of the problem
• Reading scientific/technical books and other resources to extract information
• Using and interpreting science and engineering knowledge in written work and spoken discussion and as an element in argumentation about interpretation of evidence
• Using models to envision natural or technological systems and to make predictions
Strand 2 - Generating and Evaluating Scientific Evidence Strand 2 - Generating and Evaluating
Technological Solutions
• Deciding what evidence is needed to answer a scientific question
• Formulating a testable hypothesis regarding the answer to the question
• Deciding what variables to investigate
• Planning an experiment, field study, or observation program
• Constructing or selecting instruments and measurement method
• Collecting, recording and displaying data
• Analyzing and interpreting data to establish evidence
• Constructing representations of the natural world using graphs, images, and diagrams
• Determining criteria for success and constraints, or limits
• Deciding which are the most important criteria and essential constraints
• Planning an engineering design project
• Constructing or selecting resources to carry out the project
• Brainstorming, evaluating, and synthesizing initial ideas
• Comparing alternatives, making tradeoffs to optimize the solution
• Making drawings, building and testing physical and mathematical models of prototype solutions
• Determining which solutions best meet the criteria and constraints
• Justifying explanations or optimum solutions using argument from evidence
• Identifying remaining questions or problems to solve
Strand 3 Understanding the nature and development of Scientific Knowledge and Capabilities
Strand 3 Understanding the nature and development of Technological Knowledge and Capabilities
• Reflecting on evidence and argument as the source of scientific knowledge
• Recognizing that knowledge can be revised in light of new evidence
• Reflecting on creativity and analysis in the development of technologies
• Recognizing that technologies or designs can always be improved
• Understanding the interplay of science, technology and society
• Reflecting on the status of their own knowledge and ways of thinking
• Using systems thinking and explicit models to refine their own mental models
Strand 4 - Participating Productively in practices and discourse of Science or Engineering
• Motivated to learn about science and engineering
• Forming a self-identity as a science and engineering learner and problem solver
• Skillfully interacting with peers and working in teams
• Representing information and ideas clearly and convincingly
• Arguing logically from evidence
• Respectfully listening and responding to the ideas of others
• Questioning one's own ideas and modifying them in the light of evidence
• Engaging in designing solutions to practical problems using science knowledge relevant to the context


Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes