Story Elements Related To Students' Development By Grade


Story Element Kindergarten 1-2 grade 3-4 grade 5-6 grade
  • Recognize the main character.
  • Identify characters' moods (happy, sad, angry, helping, mad ...).
  • Recognize that character's actions are related to their moods and personalities.
  • Identify personality traits of characters (good, bad, selfish, greedy, mean, shy, friendly, caring, cooperative, ...).
  • Recognize main character in a story.
  • Understand that the story is about the main character.
  • Understand that the story's creator often uses feelings to describe the characters and make a more interesting story.


  • Recognize that characters may change from the beginning to the end of a story.
  • Recognize characters' development may or may not be important for the story.
  • Identify the feelings that characters are described as having.


  • Recognize that characters are able to have all the characteristics a human can have and more.
  • Recognize that characters may be created with any characteristic that a creator chooses weather it is real or imaginary.
  • Recognizes that characters are developed by their actions, speech, appearance, comments, and other characters' actions and the author's choice of words.
  • Recognize and sympathize or empathize with the plight of the character.
  • Recognize that characters usually change within the plot of the story.
  • Recognize implied thoughts and feelings related to the characters.
  • Can retell simple linear stories by chaining events.
  • Recognize the beginning, middle, and end of a story.
  • Recognize a problem and resolution within a story.
  • Recognize the climax as the most exciting part of a story.
  • Predict the outcome of a story using the clues provided by the creator.
  • Identify conflict and tension in a story.
  • Recognize that creators use a variety of strategies and patterns to make stories interesting.
  • Recognize that several conflicts can happen in a story and may or may not build toward the climax and resolution.
  • Recognize that many stories have conflict caused by a struggle between characters (a protagonist and antagonist).
  • Understand complicated plots.
  • Recognize stories within stories.
  • Recognize strategies that authors use to create suspense during the development of the plot.
  • Recognize that most plots follow a general pattern.
  • Recognize a variety of interactions or conflicts (person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. society, person vs. nature...).
  • Can relate where the story happened.
  • Can tell the time as day or night, winter, summer, fall, or spring, holiday.
  • Identify where the story takes place.
  • Begin to understand that the selections of different kinds of settings are important for story and tone (it was a dark and stormy night).
  • Explain how the setting is or isn't important for the story and tone.
  • Describe how the story and characters are affected by the setting.
  • Recognize all stories have settings.
  • Recognize time can move steadily forward or jump forward or backward in leaps of time.
  • Recognize that settings can be used to create tone and develop plot.
  • Tell theme as a simple morale (It's good to help. Its not nice to be mean.).
  • Recognize that stories have a main idea.
  • Identify general explicit themes in some stories.
  • Begin to identify implicit themes in some stories.
  • Understand that the story is about the theme.
  • Recognize a variety of themes.
  • Recognize that a story may have multiple themes.
  • Understand implied themes.
Point of View
  • When asked who is telling the story will answer a character or creator (author, writer ...).
  • Recognize first person narration.
  • Recognize that the author isn't always the story teller or main character.
  • Recognize the omniscient (knowing everything) narrator.
  • Recognize all points of view.
  • Recognize that a point of view may change in a story.
  • Recognize that point of view can be used to assist the development of a style and tone.
  • Recognize word patterns and repeat ones they think are interesting.
  • Recognize style that is most concrete (rhyme, alliteration).
  • Recognize with a little more practice (assonance, consonance, rhythm).
  • Picture in their mind's eye, from reading or listening to imagery, images from real their life experience that relate to the author's description.
  • Recognize figures of speech (simile, metaphor, hyperbole, allusion).
  • Understand puns, word plays, and figures of speech.
  • Can recognize most kinds of style with samples or other kinds of assists.
  • Recognize symbols in literature.
  • Can look at picture books and describe the tone with regards to the illustrations (Happy, sad, stormy ...).
  • Recognize sad, happy, and other emotions that are in a story.
  • Describe how the creator described the characters and told a story.
  • Recognize humor
  • Describe how the tone relates to the story.
  • Read aloud with inflection that indicates an understanding of the creator's tone
  • Can recognize a wide variety of tones (absurd, parody, condescending, didactic ...).

Created in EDU 600 summer 2000 and refined summer 2003


Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
[Home: & ]