Phonics Development

Phonics - relationship between letters and sounds and translating text into oral language.

Allophone - speech sounds that represent a single Phoneme -The sound of k in kit,  and k in skit are allophones for the phoneme k.

Phoneme - perceptually distinct units of sound that distinguish one word from another.

Systematic phonics is the teaching of phonics with a specific plan or program as opposite to teaching as opportunities are presented as a result of the needs of the children - responsive phonics.

Synthetic phonics also called explicit phonics is where the teacher presents the individual sounds of words and how they blend into word pronunciations.

Analytic phonics  also called word analogy phonics emphasizes larger units of pronunciation. Analytic and synthetic are very different.

Research findings of the National Reading Panel (NRP) claims:

Phonemic Awareness skill

Example of instruction

Phoneme isolation

Teacher: What sound do you hear first in cat?    Student: /k/

Auditory discrimination

Teacher: Which of these words doesn't belong: bag, bear, can?
Student: Can doesn't belong—it doesn't begin like bag and bear.
Teacher: What sound is the same in jar, jam, jet?
Student: /j/

Phoneme blending

Teacher: What word is /p/ /i/ /n/?    
Student: /p/ /i/ /n/ is pin

Phoneme segmentation

Teacher: Break this word into its sounds: sock.  Student:/s//o//k/
Teacher: How many sounds are in tie?
Student: /t/ /i/ There are two sounds in tie.

Phoneme deletion

Teacher: Say chin without the /ch/
Student: in

Phoneme addition

Teacher: Add a /s/ to the end of duck
Student: Ducks
Teacher: Add /b/ to the beginning of ring
Student: Bring

Phoneme substitution

Teacher: Change the last sound you hear in pig to /n/
Student: Pin


Synthetic or explicit phonics

Analytic or word analogy  phonics

1. Teacher teaches children some simple
consonant sounds (e.g., /b/, /n/, /p/, /s/).

1. Teacher teaches words (e.g., cat, pig, man, Dad).

2. Teacher teaches a vowel sound (e.g.,
the short/a/ — the sound in cat).

2. Teacher then shows students how to use this word knowledge to sound out new words
(e.g., can, pan, Dan): This word starts like
the first sound in cat and it ends like man /an/ ... It is can.

3. Teacher teaches children how to sound
out words, and perhaps nonsense words,
using these letter sounds: bab, ban, bap,
bas, nab, nan, nap, nas, pab, pan, pap, sab.
san, sap, sas

3. Teaching continues developing new words and understandings of the sound-symbol relationships based on known words.

4. Teaching continues letter by letter and
sound by sound.



Content of phonics instruction



b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z

Consonant blends or clusters

bl, br, cl, cr, dr, dw, fl, fr, gl, gr, pi, pr, sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw, tr, tw, scr, str

Consonant digraphs

sh, th, ch, ph, ng, gh

Short vowels

cat, bet, fit, dot, but, myth

Long vowels

ate, beat, pipe, road, use

Vowel digraphs

oo, ew, aw, au, ou, ow, oi, oy

R-influenced vowels

ar, er, ir, or

Some common spelling patterns and complex rules

Consonant-Vowel-Consonant-Silent E (CVCe), CVC,
CV, CVVC, CVCCe, hard c, hard g

Silent consonants

kn, wr

Additional Research on Phonics Instruction