Anatomy overview of systems, organs, and cells
Systems, organs, and cells
- The smallest living thing.
- An example of an organ.
- A substance made from a group of cells that function together for a particular purpose.
- System that brings oxygen into the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
- System that rids the body of wastes.
- A group of tissues that function together for a particular purpose.
- A group of organs that function together for a particular purpose.
- Name five types of cells or tissues in a body.
- Name four types of tissue in the human body.
- The gas that is breathed in and used to transfer food into energy.
- The system that holds the body up and gives a body shape.
- The system that expands and contracts for movement.
- The system that that carries messages to and from the brain.
- The building blocks of all living matter.
- The system that helps control a body activities by releasing hormones into the blood.
Mark the systems:
- blood cells
- integumentary system
Mark the basic cells:
Mark the basic organs:
Respiration system review (Data sheets)
and Excretory system review (Data sheets)
Mark what is related to the respiration system:
- pulmonary arteries
Mark what is related to the excretory system:
- pituitary gland
- spinal cord
- gall bladder
- Organ that removes wastes from the blood.
- Substance formed by water, urea, and salts in the kidney.
- A group of muscles that expands and contracts when you breathe.
- A waste gas that isn't needed by your body.
- Organs used for the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- A gas needed by the human body to release energy from food.
- The body system that allows the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- The body system that caries out the removal of body wastes.
- How does the skin remove wastes from the body?
- The body part that contains the voice box.
- The blood transports the body wastes from the cells to this organ.
- A sticky substance in the nasal cavity.
- Three things that happen to air when it enters the nasal cavity.
- These are made when air passes across the vocal cords.
- This transports body wastes from the cells to the kidneys.
- Three substances that are found in urine.
- Three things found in blood.
Write the name of the appropriate body part on the line plus one more of your choice.
Name 6 ways to care for your respiratory and excretory systems.
Name the body part that contains the voice box.
Digestive system review (Data sheets)
- Arrange these body parts in the order that food passes through them:
small intestine, mouth, stomach, large intestine, esophagus, rectum
- In the small intestine molecules move into the blood by this process.
- Most water in the undigested food material is absorbed into the blood in this body part.
- The organ that holds food and mixes it with hydrochloric acid and gastric juices.
- The liver produces this substance used in digestion.
- This type of chemical change happens when food is chewed into small pieces.
- This type of change happens when chewed food is mixed with saliva.
- The glands in the mouth that release an enzyme for digestion.
- Name of the organ food passes through from the mouth to the stomach.
- Name three things that keep a digestive system healthy.
- An organ that releases pancreatic juices into the small intestine.
- Body organ that allows the absorption of sugar, alcohol, and water into the blood.
- This is the process of changing food into substances a body can use.
- The organ that makes bile.
- Most digestion takes place here.
- Write your question and answer.
Skeletal system review (Data sheets)
- It protects the heart and lungs.
- Hard substances made of living cells and minerals.
- The hard structure that supports and protects the body is called this.
- Where bones are joined together.
- It protects the brain.
- An important mineral needed for healthy bones.
- A class of foods high in calcium.
- Name the joint that moves very little and give an example.
- Name the joint that moves bones in large circles and give an example.
- Name the joint that has a twisting motion and give an example.
- The substance in the center of bones.
- A shoulder joint is this type.
- Strong tough fibers that hold bones together at the joints.
- The injury where ligaments tear or stretch away from the bones.
- A crack or break in a bone.
- A break in the bone only.
- A break in a bone with the bone protruding from the skin.
Identify three ways bones are important for the body.
Label 10 bones on the skeletons:
Skeletal illustrations modified from Ladyof Hats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal & released into public domain
Muscular system review (Data sheets)
- An example of a voluntary muscle.
- This connects muscles to bones.
- This tissue is between bones
- An example of an involuntary muscle.
- When muscles in your neck act, this moves.
- When muscles in your ankle act, this moves.
- When muscles in your wrist act, this moves.
- When the triceps contracts this happens.
- When the bicep contracts this happens.
- Muscles are made of this.
Three things muscles do for a body.
Two main groups of muscles.
Three kinds of muscles with an example of each.
Three things to do to take care of your muscles.
Three specific muscles.
Explain how muscles cause movement using the two most often used words when talking about muscles.
Bone us: This is the central part of a bone.
Label ten muscles on the diagrams.
Image adapted from: Häggström, Mikael. "Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014". Wikiversity Journal of Medicine 1 (2). via Wikimedia Commons
Nervous system review (Data sheets)
Mark the words that relate to the nervous system:
- This is the main purpose of the nervous system.
- A reflex is.
- Reflexes are important for this.
- Alcohol has this effect on the nervous system.
- A drug is.
- The main control center of the body.
- Cells that carry messages.
- The thick cord like bundle of nerve cells in a person's back.
- Nerves that transport messages from the brain to the body.
- Nerves that transport messages from the body to the brain.
Three main parts of the nervous system.
Two ways drugs effect the nervous system.
Name three drugs and give an example of what substance each can be in.
Two things that can be done to keep young children from accidentally taking drugs or poisons.
Name three parts of the brain and describe what each does.
Integumentary system review:
Body coverings - skin, hair, nails, sweat & more (Data sheets)
- This gives skin color.
- This layer of skin has a dead layer of cells.
- This layer of skin is about 3 mm thick.
- This layer of skin has the most living cells.
- This determines the amount of curl in hair.
- This gives hair its color.
- This layer is 1 mm thick.
- This makes freckles.
- The skin at the base of a fingernail.
- The layer of skin with a waterproof substance.
- Pores are.
- Pigment protects skin by.
- This layer of skin has hair follicles and glands in it.
- Nails and hair are made of this.
- Your body needs this substance everyday to grow new cells.
- Peanuts, cheese, meats, eggs, fish, and nuts are rich in this substance.
- Dermis means this.
Four things skin does for the body.
Four ways to keep skin healthy.
Use the diagram to label the following:
Four things on the surface of a human body.
Two main parts of skin.
Four things in dermis.
Cardiovascular system review (Data sheets)
Mark what is related to the cardiovascular system:
- The smallest living thing in your body.
- Groups of cells working together make this.
- Groups of tissues make this.
- Organs working together make this.
- The heart is this.
- The smallest part of the heart is made of this.
- The system that transports blood is this.
- Name four things that are in the blood.
- When you get a blood transfusion you need to get this.
- This is the largest blood vessel in a body.
- Blood going to the heart from the body travels in these vessels.
- Blood leaving the lungs has more of this in it.
- The smallest type of blood vessels in a body are these.
- Name for the type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
- Blood going to the lungs has more of this.
- The surge felt in blood vessels.
- This is in the blood and help protect from infection.
Name three parts of the cardiovascular system.
Name three things transported with the cardiovascular system.
These are the three kinds of blood vessels.
Name two thing to do to maintain a healthy heart.
Draw arrows to show the flow of blood.
Endocrine system review (Data sheets)
Mark what has to do with the endocrine system:
- pituitary gland
- This is the function of the endocrine system.
- Chemicals released into the blood by the endocrine glands.
- This is a tissue or organ that makes and releases chemicals into the blood.
- This is the control gland of the endocrine system.
- This substance allows glucose to move from the blood to the cells.
- This is the substance the cells use that can be thought of as food.
- A disease caused by the body not making enough insulin.
- The rate a body uses food.
Two main things of the endocrine system.
Name four glands that are in the endocrine system and describe what each does.
Two things that you can do to take care of your endocrine system.
Lymph and Immune system review (Data sheets)
Reproductive system review (Data sheets)
- Part of the eye that washes it and keeps it moist.
- Opening in the center of the eye.
- Hairs on the eye lid to protect the eye.
- Colored part of the eye.
- Where the image is supposed to focus.
- Nerve that sends signals caused by light to brain.
- Focuses light on the retina.
- Adjusts to let different amount of light into the eye.
- Transparent outter cover on the front of the eye.
- Muscle that controls the amount of light entering the eye.
- Path between the eye and the brain.
- Round opening in the center of the eye.
- Light does this to the iris.
- The white part of the eye.
Five parts of an eye.
Two types of eye conditions that can be corrected by glasses.
Three ways people use sight.
Two ways to reduce eye infections.
Two kinds of retina cells.
Use the diagrams below to label and explain a model of how the eye works and how near or far sighted vision is corrected with contact lenses or eye glasses.
Explain the candle, lens, and screen demonstration.
- Organ used to sense sound.
- Parts of an ear are often classified as belonging to one of these three areas.
- Outside part of the ear.
- Hard substance inside the pinna.
- Thin layer of skin that vibrates when sound waves hit it.
- Opening that leads from the outside of a head into the thin layer of skin in an ear.
- Part of the ear shaped like a shell and filled with fluid.
- Tube connecting the middle ear to the back part of the throat.
- Nerve that sends signals from the ear to the brain.
- Part of the ear important for knowing up, down, and balance.
- Sound is.
- Vibrations are.
- A benefit of ear wax.
- The brain hears an echo when this happens.
Three bones in the ear.
Describe how sound travels from a vibrating object and is interpreted by the brain.
Draw, label, and explain a model of the ear and how it works.
- Plants get their energy from this.
- Animals get their energy from this.
- This nutrient is the building block of the body.
- A unit to measure energy used by the body.
- Protein is broken down into these.
- A human body is mostly this.
- A vitamin that helps build strong bones, teeth, and prevents the disease rickets.
- A mineral needed for bones, teeth, clotting blood, healthy nerve, and muscle cells.
- A vitamin that helps maintain healthy skin, muscles, blood vessels, and helps make a cement like substance that helps heal wounds and protects against infection.
- A vitamin that keeps skin, nerves, and intestines healthy and prevents the disease pellagra.
- A vitamin that helps make healthy nerves, appetites, aides digestion, heps cells use energy, and prevents the disease beriberi.
- A vitamin that helps keep eyes and skin healthy. Healthy skin is smooth and soft and aides in the prevention of infections.
- Three types of vitamins that the body does not store, therefore, they must be replaced daily.
- Vitamins that are stored in the body and if taken in large doses can build up and create problems.
- This solution is used as a test for starch.
Three nutrients used for energy.
Two foods high in protein.
Two foods high in fat.
Two foods high in carbohydrates.
Two foods high in calcium.
Two foods high in vitamin C.
Two foods high in iron.
Two foods high in vitamin A
Milk can be separated into two proteins. What are the two proteins and describe each.
Describe a test for protein.
- Chromosomes that determine if an organism is male or female.
- These are found on chromosomes.
- A weaker genetic trait.
- A stronger genetic trait.
- Crossing plants or animals to attain a certain trait or kind of offspring.
- The passing of a trait from a parent to an offspring.
- A trait in an organism cause by a change in genes.
- Animals that people raise for food.
- Fertilizing one plant by moving pollen from the anther of one plant to the stigma of another plant.
- A blood disease caused by genetic material.
breeding, livestock, genes, dominant, recessive, heredity, cross-pollenation, mutant, sex chromosomes, sickle-cell anemia
Mitosis and meiosis
Arrange the following in order.
1. Egg produced by meosis
__ Organism is born
__ Fertilization forms a zygote
__ Sperm is produced by meosis
__ An embryo is formed
__ Zygote divides by mitosis
Complete the following chart:
|Organism||Number of chromosomes in body cell||Number of chromosomes in sex cell|
Barbara McClintock, won the 1983 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for work she did 30 years earlier. In 1951 she announced her idea of a jumping gene and described how it controled the color of kernels of corn.
- Describe what a jumping gene means using the words chromosome, gene, and trait.
- Describe why it took 30 years for Barbara McClintock to win the Nobel Prize.
Describe what is happening in the drawings below.